Frank Stella is an American artist, print-maker and sculptor. Stella is most known for his contributions to minimalism. Stella was featured in Dayton’s Gallery in Minneapolis. To learn more about Dayton’s Gallery and its contribution to the Minnesota art scene, consult the link below.
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Enrico Baj was an Italian artist who worked with Umberto Eco, and often associated with the surrealist and dada movements. Many of Baj’s works reflect his obsession with nuclear war. Baj identified himself with the anarchist movement and is most well known for his series of satirized “Generals”. Baj was also featured in the Dayton’s Gallery of Minneapolis. To learn more about how Dayton’s Gallery 12 impacted the Minnesota art scene, consult the link below.
Shusaku Arakawa was a Japanese artist and architect who referred to himself as an “abstractionist of the distant future.” Arakawa is known for his partnership and collaboration with American artist, Madeline Gins, The Mechanism of Meaning.
Arakawa was also featured in Dayton’s Gallery in Minneapolis. To learn more about Dayton’s Gallery and its influence on the Minnesota art scene, consult the link below.
Horst Antes was a German born artist and sculptor. He won several prizes and scholarships for his paintings, but is also known for his sculptures in public places. Some of these works can still be found in Hannover and Sindelfingen. Antes was featured in Minneapolis’ Dayton’s Gallery. To learn more about Dayton’s Gallery and its legacy in the Minnesota fine art scene, follow the link below.
Josef Albers was a German-born artist and educator at the beginning of the 20th century. Like many artists, Albers emigrated to the United States during World War Two. Albers is most known for his work in the abstract, with strong attention to composition.
Albers was featured in Dayton’s Gallery in the Twin Cities. To learn more about Dayton’s Gallery and the influence it had on the Minnesota fine art scene, follow the link below.
Toko Shinoda is one of Japan’s most celebrated artists of the 20th and 21st centuries. She began learning calligraphy at age 6, and now at the age of 105 she is still painting with ink. Shinoda uses traditional materials to create paintings and prints in a modern Abstract Expressionist style.
Her father began teaching her traditional Japanese calligraphy when she was 6 years old, and she became devoted to exploring the art form. Shinoda began publicly exhibiting her calligraphy at age 20 and also began teaching it. In her 30’s her calligraphy style became more abstract, as she sought a more personal form of expression. Eventually she transitioned from calligraphy into creating paintings with ink.
In 1956 Shinoda moved to New York, staying until 1958. During this time her work was displayed in many solo exhibitions in galleries across the US. She also had the chance to view the work of other contemporary artists, many of whom made a big impression on her, and inspired her to work in a more free and loose style once she returned to Japan.
In each piece Shinoda attempts to convey a vision in her head inspired by something in the natural world. With each brushstroke she attempts to capture the fleeting movements of clouds, flames, grasses and flowers in the breeze, or reflections of light on water. She prefers to keep her work abstract, so that each piece is open to interpretation by the viewer, and each viewer can interpret it in a different way.
While her style is abstract, her materials and working methods are very traditional. She uses the best quality sumi ink cakes or sticks, some dating back to Ming Dynasty China. To create the ink, water is added to her ink stone. The water is sometimes collected from rain dripping off rocks near her home overlooking Mt Fuji. The ink stick is ground into the water until she achieves the desired tone of black.
Shinoda uses many different sizes of brushes to create overlapping strokes of black ink in various tones, occasionally mixing in other colors such as silver and gold. After 1960 she also began creating lithograph prints. Unlike the woodcut or etching technique, lithograph allows her to work in a manner very similar to painting. She applies the ink directly to a plate, then creates 12-55 copies of the image. Shinoda often adds a few hand-painted strokes of ink onto the surface of each lithograph print, so that in the end each is a unique work of art.
Unlike an oil painting that can be revised and changed, each brushstroke is permanent and ink immediately soaks into the paper. It requires the artist to have great control of the brush, yet holds the potential to convey a fleeting moment or thought like no other medium. In each piece she seeks a delicate balance of lines, forms, and colors that express her vision.
Toko Shinoda has never married or had children, and has remained devoted to her work by immersing herself in it every day. She doesn’t have a rigid work schedule, but picks up her brushes each day as inspiration hits. Her devotion to her craft has paid off, as her paintings and prints can now be found in the best galleries and museums throughout the world.